Skin is a vitally important organ for defense of our body and along with gastrointestinal and urinary systems important for fluid and electrolyte balance as well as temperature control of the body. Blood flow through skin for thermoregulation is 10% of total.
All internal disorders and external influences can be observed on the skin. Destruction of 30% of skin surface is dangerous to life, while 70% loss of function is fatal.
The surface of skin is 2 m2, and the weight 15% of total body weight. About 10% of blood circulates through skin. Normal skin cells survive 30 days. The loss of desquamated cells of stratum corneum amounts to 1.0 gm a day. There is 2 – 4 million sweat glands in the skin which could produce as much as 4 l hypotonic fluid every hour. The total number of hair is 100,000, one hair survives 2 ½ years, eyelid hair 100 to 150 days.
Revitalization by fetal precursor cell transplantation makes skin less atrophic, more firm, more elastic. This applies mostly to the skin of face and hands exposed to the elements most of the time. The skin blood flow is improved with more rosy color, wrinkles diminished, dryness and scaling decreased or absent, lid edema diminished or absent, aging spots disappear or are less visible. Hair fallout stops, and sometimes new hair growth becomes apparent, occasionally graying of hair improves or disappears. Broken or damaged nails heal.
Skin diseases, such as acne vulgaris, psoriasis, ulcus cruris, and various eczemas, sarcoid Darrier-Roussy, hereditary keratosis palmaris at plantaris, chronic lichen, scleroderma, etc. improve by fetal cell xeno-transplantation. VI.BIBLIOGRAPHY [264, 267, 268, 269, 270] Vitiligo, and frostbite of big toes, were treated by cell transplantation of placenta and liver with success. VI.BIBLIOGRAPHY 
At 10th World Congress of Combustology in Paris, France, in June 1994, the author read a paper on non-surgical treatment of deep (surgical) burns using human fetal tissues, whereby we proved that patients with burns requiring skin grafting can be treated with nearly 100% success rate by a surface application of a suspension of fetal cells of skin and placenta, faster than with surgery, and with better cosmetic results. In this way skin grafting operations, painful and costly, often repeated many times, could be avoided in majority of instances. VI.BIBLIOGRAPHY  Similar report was presented by the author at All-India Congress of Burn Injuries in 1995 at Jaipur.
This idea was born in WW2 during the 9-months long siege of St. Peterburg by German army, where the number of burned patients reached such proportions that surgeons could not handle the load and began to use a suspension made from skin of cadavers frozen in the extremely cold winter which made burials impossible to cover the burnsed skin surface.
The clinical trial took place at the Moscow Burn Center of Sklifasovsky Reearch Center of Emergency Medicine of Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, where there was an abundance of patients with 3rd degree burns that could not receive skin grafts due to a variety of medical conditions, in particular infections of burned surface not responding to antibiotics, as well as the most experienced burn surgeons.
The published report described the treatment of 20 patients, 17 males and 3 females, from 15 to 53 yearsoof age. Suspension of fetal skin and placenta was applied to the burn surface by diluting cells in physiologic solution, and then dipping the fine gauze in the cell suspension and its application on the burned surface once every 24 hours, preventing dehydration by an external wrapping by cellophane.
In the 1st degenerative/inflammatory stage the suspension consisted of 70% of placenta and 30% of skin, as the goal was to take advantage of necrolytic and bactericidal properties of placenta. In the 2nd inflammatory/reparative stage the suspension consisted of 50% of placenta and 50% of skin, and finally in the 3rd reparative stage the ratio was 70% of skin and 30% of placenta, as the goal was to use the epidermal growth factors of the skin. Treatment continued until a nearly complete epithelization took place.
The success rate was 100%. The prolonged infections cleared within 24 – 48 hours, so that after 24 hours the i.v. antibiotics were discontinued.
Deep burns healed by a full thickness of exceptionally good quality in 100% of cases. There were no atrophic scars and a minimum of hypertrophic scars, so that cosmetic results were superior to skin grafting. VI.BIBLIOGRAPHY 
The main problem was the paucity of preparations of skin and placenta due to a lack of human fetal cadavers, so that only a limited number of patients could be so treated. That was obviously the reason why the method has not been used by anyone else. Due to that we subsequently developed preparations of rabbit fetal skin and placenta for the same purpose, and tested them on patients desiring rejuvenation of skin of face, neck, and other body parts. In the 1st stage a controlled chemical burn was created for exfoliation of epidermis and of the upper layer of dermis, and in the 2nd stage, 48 hours later, a surface application of fetal skin and placenta was carried out varying the ratios of skin and placenta as in the original burn project. The results have been remarkable.
Our study of alopecia in children at the Endocrinologic Research Center of Russian Academy of Medical Sciences included 5 children with alopecia areata, one of them with multiple bald areas, 1 child with subtotal alopecia, and 4 children with total alopecia, 8 to 16 years of age, 2 males, 8 females. Majority of patients suffered from autonomous nervous system disorder with parasympaticotonic dominance and hypotonia. Blood levels of all hormones were normal in all patients with the exception of 13 ½ years old female with multiple areas of alopecia areata, mild cataract, and pubertas praecox, where TSH was very low. All patients had a minor hypocalcemia. All patients received human fetal cell transplantation of adrenal cortex, diencephalon, placenta, liver, skin, and the patient with pubertas praecox also anterior lobe of pituitary. All patients with alopecia areata improved within 2 months, while there was no response in patients with total alopecia.