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Fetal precursor cell transplantation (FPCT) is a surgical procedure in which an implantation of live tissue fragments, or cell clusters, of different organs and tissues, of human (allo-) or animal (xeno-) origin, from fetal and neonatal stage of development, is carried out as the therapy of diseases of humans and animals. Beware that the definition specifically excludes cells from embryonic stage of development.

It is the only known treatment to accomplish

- a repair or healing of any mal- (or non-) functioning cell type,

- of any tissue(s) and organ(s),

- damaged by disease, injury, or abnormal growth & development,


- direct stimulation of regeneration of the patient’s own mal- (or non-) functioning cells

- of any such damaged tissue(s) or organ(s) or sometimes perhaps also by

- transplantation of new fetal cells to replace the function of those damaged or destroyed in the patient’s body.

Fetal precursor cell transplantation is carried out by:

A/ implantation by an injectional route, (or exceptionally via minor surgery):

- intra-hepatic

- intra-venous, usually intraportal, via portal vein,

- sub-aponeurotic (under aponeurosis of of m. rectus abdominis),

- deep subcutaneous (epifascial),

- intra-muscular,

- intra-omental (via laparoscopy),

- intra-peritoneal,

- intra-arterial (via needle or catheter),

- intra-splenic,

- intra-thymic,

- intra-cerebral, or intra-ventricular via stereotactic neurosurgery,

- intra-thecal via lumbar puncture,

- intra-articular,

- intra-osseous.

B/ implantation by a major surgery:

- orthopedic,

- neuro-transplantation,

C/ surface application of fetal precursor cells transplants for:

- treatment of deep burns when skin grafting cannot be used.

Fetal precursor cell transplantation is a surgical procedure that has been used successfully for ~90 years (albeit under various names depending upon the country where a pioneering physicians worked) as treatment of many diseases for which modern medicine has had no therapy, or in which 'state-of-art' therapies stopped being effective. It is not a ’wonder drug’, or a transplantation of some ’Mother-of-all-Cells’, or ’universal stem cell’, that cures everything.

Physicians have utilized fetal precursor cell transplantation as treatment of many ailments when they recognized that their patient needs predominantly a direct stimulation of regeneration, i.e. repair, of the damaged (diseased) cells or tissues of various organs. 

The proof of effectiveness is in enormous number of medical references about fetal precursor cell transplantation of the past ~65 years that can be easily found by opening the MEDLINE of U.S. National Library of Medicine,where thousands of summaries about fetal cell transplantation could be found

- fetal cell transplantation

- fetal tissue transplantation

- brain tissue transplantation

- hematopoietic cell transplantation

- islets of pancreas transplantation.

It is apparent that the use of fetal cell transplantation in clinical practice has not been a rarity.

The most important older (but also current) medical research and clinical reports, nearly all in German and Russian, are not included in MEDLINE,[1] and can be found with difficulties only.

This is unfortunate because they contain groundbreaking data on which the entire field of fetal precursor cell transplantation has been based and which have been ignored in the recent anglophone literature.

Many of those publications are cited in this text, and discussed.

The value of these publications becomes obvious when one considers that over 5 million patients have been treated in Germany alone with various forms of fetal cell transplantation,  and of those an estimated 1 million has been treated with ’natural quantity of stem cells containing fetal cell transplants, as well as that an estimated 20 million patients worldwide received in the U.S.S.R. developed live human placental tissue fragments implantations containing various trophoblastic cells with some properties of stem cells.

Without trophoblasts an embryo could never become a newborn. At the beginning of conception the trophoblasts are indistinguishable from ‘embryonic stem cells’. Only at the stage of 58-cell human blastocyst can the outer cells, destined to produce trophoblasts of placenta, be recognized as different from the inner cells, that will form embryo proper. In 107-cell human blastocyst, 8- embryo-producing cells are surrounded by 99 trophoblastic cells, a 12:1 numerical discrepancy. [215] Genotypically, trophoblastic cells are the same cells as ’embryonic stem cells’. 

Germany and U.S.S.R. have been the leaders in fetal precursor cell transplantation.

The author of this text has been involved for over 38 years in the research and clinical application of the fetal precursor cell transplantation, as well as trophoblastic cell transplantation in thousands of patients in many countries.

Current medicine knows of only one treatment to help the replacement of dead cells: transplantation of organs that has been with us for a few decades. These are life saving major surgical procedures in which an entire organ without which the recipient cannot live is replaced by one from a living or a just deceased donor. Organ transplantation has been used only as a treatment of last resort, because it is a major surgery, and because the body of the receiving patient always rejects an organ allo-transplant, and so such patients must take for the rest of their lives immuno-suppressants, with all their side effects, some life-threatening.

Fetal precursor cell transplantation is a newer approach, one that will dominate medicine of the 21st century. Fetal cell transplantation is a minor procedure for the patient and for that reason can be, and should be, used in the earlier stages of those diseases that current medicine cannot cure or successfully treat. There is no logical reason to wait until the end-stage, as is the case with organ transplantation, and has been the case with fetal precursor cell transplantation until now.

Implanted fetal precursor cell transplants are not dependent on blood circulation of the recipient, and thereby undergo no structural changes through degeneration, or outright necrosis, due to inadequate blood circulation and lack of oxygen as in organ transplantation.

In order to avoid the troubles with obtaining human fetuses, haematopoietic stem cell transplantation became highly popular in the U.S., where the source of cells has been umbilical cord blood collected during normal deliveries.

The latest approach that avoids some of the problems with procurement of human fetuses has been the transplantation of embryonic cells obtained from early stages of division of fertilized eggs unused during in vitro fertilization. The advantage of the use of early embryonic cells is that there are are pluripotential, i.e. they can develop into any cell of any organ of the body. The disadvantage is that besides two common problems of cell transplantation, i.e. transmission of infection, and immune reactions, there is an added problem of oncogenicity. The pluripotential embryonic cells can develop into any normal cell of any organ of the body but also into cancerous cells. There is no such danger when fetal precursor cell transplants are utilized.

Despite a daily flood of data on stem cell transplantation and fetal precursor cell transplantation, physicians and medical audience continue to be confused about the subject since the reports have forgotten to mention that

- the fact that embryonic stem cells are unusable for an actual patient treatment due to their oncogenicity has been known for several decades;

- an implantation of fetal precursor cells, several generations older than embryonic stem cells, have been used as a treatment for ~90 years;

- fetal precursor cells of animal fetal origin are equally effective, and safe, for the cell transplantation treatment, so that all troubles with human embryonic cells can be avoided, i.e. moral ethical, religious, etc.;

- therapeutic use of cell transplants of animal fetal origin in approximately one million patients over ~90 years has accumulated sufficient data to assure that this treatment, i.e. fetal precursor cell xeno-transplantation , is not dangerous to an individual patient or to a mankind. The above number of around 1 million patients represents 99% of all patients that have received fetal precursor cell transplantation to-date, i.e. the use of fetal precursor cell allo-transplants of human origin has been minimal so far.

There are many published medical reports on hundreds of patients showing that changes of laboratory parameters of the immune system function before and after fetal precursor cell transplantation are minimal and statistically not significant. This confirms the absence of any noticeable clinical immune reactions after fetal precursor cell transplantation providing cell transplants have been prepared properly, such as by the method described in this text. Of estimated 5 to 25 million patients treated by fetal precursor cell transplantation worldwide, 99.99% underwent xeno- or allo-transplantation without immunosuppression.

Until we learn what life is, and many philosophers believe that it will never happen, and can explain many aspects of the function of the living body, we have to be satisfied with the fact that implantation of fetal cell transplants prepared and implanted by the ‘state-of-art’ method’, such as that of BCRO, does not cause clinically apparent immune reactions. 

The use of immunosuppression has been one of the main reasons why the success rate of fetal cell transplantation has been so low in those lands where the use of immunosuppression has been mandatory. Long-term immunosuppression is not only dangerous to the patients, it is detrimental to fetal precursor cell transplants, because these very young cells are enormously sensitive to any toxins, such as immunosuppressants.