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The history of fetal precursor cell transplantation is actually a history of fetal precursor cell xeno-transplantation.

It was not until the late 70-ies of the last century when human fetal tissue transplantation (‘allotransplantation’) began in the U.S.S.R. and from there spread into some other communist countries, i.e. Yugoslavia, Hungary, German Democratic Republic, Peoples’ Republic of China.

In the late 80-ies Hana Biologicals, a public corporation based in Alameda, California, began procurement of human fetal tissue transplants in cooperation with a human fetus collection company in Philadelphia, PA. After U.S. FDA approved clinical trial of treatment of type 1 diabetes mellitus by transplantation of cells produced by Hana Biologicals failed, all cell transplantation activity ceased in the U.S. until 2001.

This idea was born a long time ago.

Papyrus of Eber - 3,000 B.C. - described preparation of medications from animal organs.

Susruta1,400 B.C. (Mesopotamia, today Irak) – prescribed ingestion of sex glands of young tigers as treatment of impotence.

Hippocrates470 – 410 B.C. – carried out transplantation of frog skin to treat man.

Aristoteles384 – 322 B.C., and Plinius the Elder -23 – 79 A.D., described preparation and use of animal and human organ extracts for human treatment.

Paracelsus (Theofrastus Bombastus of Hohenheim) – 1493 – 1541 - wrote in his book: ‘Heart heals heart, kidneys heal kidneys’ and “Like heals like”, i.e. he discovered organospecificity, one of the scientific principles of modern fetal precursor cell transplantation..

Hooke1663 – discovered a cell.

Schleiden1838 – discovered that cells are the structural basis of all plants.

Schwann1839 – discovered that cells are the structural basis of all animals, not only of plants.

Hunter1771 - and Berthold1849 – proved substitution effect of implanted sex glands on a castrated cock.

Brown-Sequard1889 – presented to the fellow members of French Academy of Sciences report on self-treatment by implantation of rooster sex glands for revitalization (as an elderly widower he re-married a much younger woman that caused problems which he, the most famous physiologist of his era, resolved). This was the first documented case of cell xeno-transplantation in the history of medicine. Immunosuppression was unknown then.

Virchow1821 –1902, father of modern pathology, stated that “all life stems from cells”, and that “there is no life without cells”. Or, in other words, that ‘cells are bearers of all life’.

Carell1873 – 1944, father of cell biology, (first U.S. Nobel prize winner, in 1912, for discovering technique of surgical suture of blood vessels), succeded in keeping a tissue culture of chick embryo cardiomyoblasts alive indefinitely, as long as the tissue culture medium was replenished at regular intervals by another containing a small amount of the same embryonic cells. Actually his tissue culture was allowed to expire after 34 years.

Cushing 1869 – 1939, one of the fathers of neurosurgery, was also the most important endocrinologist of all times due to his pioneering research on pituitary hormones and their relations to hormones of hypothalamus, adrenals, and other peripheral endocrine organs. Niehans credited Cushing with some of his ideas that were included in the concept of cell therapy / cell transplantation.

Landsteiner1900 – discovered blood groups, thus making blood transfusion safe, without immunosuppression. Blood transfusion was the first widely used method of cell transplantation in clinical practice.

Kuttner1912 - succesfully transplanted human adult thyroid tissue to another patient after thyroidectomy. Immunosuppression was unknown at that time.

Voronoff1910 – began to widely use xeno-transplantation in clinical practice. His research on transplantation of animal (monkey) testes to aging men caught attention of media and brought him notoriety. Unfortunately monkeys are carriers of syphilis (which is harmless to them) and thus his patients acquired a dangerous disease, for which there was no treatment at that time. Today by following U.S. FDA and WHO rules on manufacturing xeno-transplants this kind of disaster would be impossible. No immunosuppression was used then.

Niehans1982 – 1971 – doctor of Lutheran theology and doctor of medicine, decorated hero of WW1 and WW2, a member of Papal Academy of Sciences, an illegitimate child of the last German Kaiser, developed between 1920 and 1931 ‘cell therapy’* that was defined by him as a transplantation of freshly obtained animal fetal tissue fragments of various, in principle all, organs for treatment of man.

In 1927 he succesfully used implantation of fresh calf pituitary tissue fragments for treatment of pituitary dwarfs. In 1929 he treated patients with chronic polyarthritis by a similar method with success.

In 1931 he was asked to save life of a woman dying of tetany due to accidental removal of all parathyroid glands during total thyroidectomy by a famous surgeon. As there was no time even for the usual minor implantation surgery, P. Niehans took surgical scissors and chopped down the animal parathyroid glands obtained from the slaughterhouse so that it would pass through an injection needle, and implanted the tissue fragments thus obtained with syringe and large-bore needle. The patient survived and lived for another 21 years. Thereby ‘cell therapy’ was born, created in a life or death situation, without any research or scientific discussions. This genius clinician treated more VIP’s of our world than any other physician alive or dead. He did not use any immunosuppression.

In 1954, during ‘Therapy Week’ in Karlsruhe, Germany, around 5,000 physicians packed the auditorium, standing in vestibule and halls, in order to listen to his lectures. As a result of his teachings and that of his most glorious followers: SCHMID, STEIN, SCHMIDT, KMENT, NEUMANN, HOEPKE, v. LANGENDORFF, BERNHARD, LETTRE, LANDSBERGER, ANDRES, WOLF, GIANOLI, CAMERER, and others, as many as 5 million patients were treated by cell therapy ( more than 4 million of that in Germany), of which around one million was treated by live cell transplants. Afterward the definition of cell therapy was enlarged to include the use of preserved cells for treatment.

In 50-ies P. Niehans received one night visitors from an insulin-maker Eli Lilly Co. with a check for U.S. $ 1,000,000,- to induce him to stop his attempts to find a treatment of diabetes mellitus by cell therapy. (To find a treatment for diabetes mellitus and cancer by cell therapy was his lifelong obsession.) After he refused, pharmaceutical industry began to systematically attack cell therapy. After 1956 all publications about cell therapy /cell transplantation stopped in U.S., and from that time no U.S. medical school library kept any German medical journals known to publish articles about cell therapy / cell transplantation, or books.

In 1987 German government banned the sale of preserved celltherapeutica in pharmacies, but when it attempted to ban cell therapy altogether in 1997, i.e. fresh cell therapy / cell transplantation, it failed. German Supreme Court ruled on February 16, 2000, that fresh cell therapy / cell transplantation is safe, and overturned the attempted ban.. This decision means that cell therapy has continued to be permitted in Germany and thereby in the entire European Union.

Filatow – 1875 – 1956 – father of transplantation of cornea, while developing his method came in 1933 across an idea to use implantation of fragments of human placenta to improve results of corneal transplantation. Implantation of human placental fragments became the most popular biological therapeutic method to-date, worldwide, known under numerous names, usually that of the clinic owner. No immunosuppression has ever been used.

Kasakow – in 1925, based on the method of Tuchnow, developed treatment by cell hydrolysates, which became well known in USSR. Subsequent to the death of the deputy chief of NKVD (predecessor of KGB), allegedly as a result of such therapy, Kasakow was sentenced to death, his governmental institute eliminated and all writings locked up for generations by KGB in a library of banned literature, until partially discovered by BCRO in 1993.

Shumakow – 1979 – published in a peer reviewed journal about the success of cell transplants prepared by tissue culture in the treatment of a female with severe complications of insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, without immunosuppression; the patient was well for 21 years without any additional cell transplantation.

Bio-Cellular Research Organization (BCRO)

On May 1, 1969, 26 years old author left communist Czechoslovakia, 8 months after its occupation by USSR. He was already Board Certified Head&Neck Surgeon, just appointed a County Consultant for Pediatric Head&MNeck Surgery. His father got in touch with his best friend from their youth, a Jewish man, who left Czechoslovakia in 1948, right after it became communist. On May 1, 1969, he was greeted in Vienna by two U.S. citizens, father's friend and his wife, who waited for him in person so that they could find out, if he can get to U.S. quickly through a regular channels or they will have to invite him privately. The next day as the author was waiting to be registered in one of the U.S. organizations for Czechoslovak refugees, he noticed, that one of the men waiting in line behind him was his cousin. He was in Vienna already for six weeks, during which time he learned the name of personal secretary of U.S. Consul, but he could not pay her a visit, because he did not speak German. Since the author did, they went to U.S. Consulate together. It was located across the street from the office of organization for Czechoslovak refugees. The secretary was very kind to the author, as 45 - 50 years' old ladies usually were, due to their maternal feelings for him. She completely forgot about author's cousin, but paid a full attention to him, even more when she learned that the author was a physician: she took care of him like her son. She filled out an application for him to obtain a U.S. permanent visa. When he came in for his next appointment with U.S. Consul, she held him by the hand like her own son. The author's interview with U.S. Consul took only a few minutes: they shook hands, there were no questions asked. Then U.S. Consul asked the author to sign a statement on a dotted line, after which he said "Welcome to United States of America" and interview was over. The secretary took the author by hand again and they left the U.S. Consul's office like mother and son. Two weeks later the author was on the plane to Los Angeles, Calif., which was the home of his Jewish friends.

In their house I (the author) had my private room with a bath. My "uncle Imrich" and "aunt Heda", as were their first names in Slovak, mobilized their Slovak Jewish friends to find Slovak Jewish physicians, living in L.A., so by next day we were already collecting information, what to do about my license to practice medicine, that I could not get living behind iron curtain. With the help of new Slovak Jewish friends I was able to fill out an application for my first ECFMG examination and get back a letter of acceptance from their office in Philadelphia on following Monday. Upon passing it I would be recognized as a medical doctor in U.S. In the meantime all textbooks, that I had to digest to pass this hurdle, were bought for me, so that the next day I began to study for that exam, scheduled for September 10, 1969. I passed it with a score of 95%, including test of English reading and understanding. Now I could apply for admission to 3-days' long California State Board Licensing Examination in the first half of December 1969. For the first time in California, they used the same type of examination, as was required for finals of U.S. medical students, before getting their physician's diploma. I passed it with 90% score. Since I knew that I would get results from California only in January 1970 I decided to start my internship at County Hospital of El Paso, Texas, on 1/1/1970. State of Texas did not require any examination to allow foreign physician to do that.

During these 7 months I got also schooling from uncle Imrich. Whenever he had time, he taught me about Jews and U.S.A., that I really knew nothing about. In Czechoslovakia schools were much better than in U.S., but the information about U.S.A. was minimal. But much more valuable was his teaching about Jews, which in Czechoslovakia was non-existent. One of his key warning to avoid like a plague Russian and Polish Jews, because in Nazi concentration camps they were the best informants of German guards on Jewish inmates, thus sending many innocent Jewish prisoners to gas chamber. The next to be very careful about were Czech Jews. Uncle Imrich was a medical student in Prague's Charles University, so that before occupation of Czech lands by Germany he quickly escaped to Budapest, where he survived until the end of WW2, while his whole family died in German concentration camps. Many Jewish people survived thanks to Hungary. (His wife, aunt Heda, was a survivor of German concentration camp.) His whole family deeply disliked Israel and especially Israeli Jews. They never visited that country. Both daughters married Jewish men, the older an Italian and younger a French one. He liked U.S. for business opportunities, but disliked it for its genocide of Indians. "You should learn to like what is good in U.S. and avoid all that is bad here." That was his main law. Unfortunately later on I had minimal opportunity to speak to him alone, since I was working in Texas, and Illinois, and when we moved back to L.A., he was already ill, dying of cancer.

There was a reason why I selected a hospital in State of Texas: I could get there a license to practice medicine in 6 weeks after passing a 3-days written examination. It was important to me, because I could immediately increase my income, so that I could bring to U.S. my parents, in case they would be persecuted in Czechoslovakia because of my departure. But that turned out not to be so easy. The Secretary of Texas Board of Medical Examiners did not accept my diploma as a physician and my "index", in which were grades from all my 55 examinations, with the grades, handwritten by examining professor and his signature. He insisted on receiving a written confirmation from my medical school with a signature of the Dean. In Czechoslovakia they passed a law, by which all the government officials, like Deans, were forbidden to communicate with Czechoslovak citizens refugees to the western world and the penalties were severe. My father, a lawyer, went to the Dean personally. I was pleasantly surprised by the result. The Dean remembered me very well. He told my father, that every professor of Faculty of Medicine of Komensky University in Bratislava knew me, because I was one of two geniuses, that graduated from our medical school in 45 years of its existence. For that reason he was going to break a law and give me a required letter. In two days such a letter was in mailbox of my parents.

I was working in the first two months of my internship in obstetrics/gynecology department on a 36 hours on/12 hours off schedule. I delivered 145 babies in 2 months. Juarez/El Paso was then a city of about 2 millions. It was the main place for instant creation of new Americans, since every newborn on U.S. territory became automatically a U.S. citizen, that'why pregnant Mexican women just before the term waited near the border for start of birth pains and then crossed into U.S. and marched straight to County Hospital. They were checked in Emergency Room and if there found to be in labor, they had to be admitted and send up to labor room and from there to delivery room. I did deliver even twins alone, because a resident physician could not reach the hospital in time for birth, so he coached me over a phone. - Just before the end of my internship my future wife arrived to El Paso from Vienna, Austria and we got married that same week. After the marriage day, she did not see me for two days and a half because of I worked non-stop in the hospital.

I used my vacations to see the various hospitals with residency programs in head&neck surgery in California, but the most important visit was at Illinois Eye and Ear Infirmary in Chicago, which was the best in that field in the U.S. for four decades. It was made such by son of Czech Jewish parents, that immigrated to U.S. before WW1 and settled in Chicago. They never learned to speak any other language (but Czech). But that was nothing unusual in Chicago. Their son, Prof.Dr. Lederer, spoke fluent Czech to be able to communicate to them even though he had never been in Czechoslovakia. He was the President of American Board of Head&Neck surgery for 35 years, who built this field of surgery in U.S. from scratch. He was the chief of Illinois Eye&Ear Infirmary since its inception. His textbook is the best in U.S. in this field of medicine even today. I was lucky that he was in, when I came for my interview, since he had recently retired. He was around a few times, when I was working there and he gave me some invaluable points for my future. His most important advice was, that I should select for my practice location, where I will be needed the most, not a place, in which there is abundance of physicians! I did just that, when right form the start in L.A. I was a voluntary professor of head&neck surgery at C. Drew Medical School in L.A., one of two medical schools for minorities in U.S.

When I began my residency at Illinois Eye and Ear Infirmary many of my fellow-residents and some professors looked down upon me. What the guy from Czechoslovakia can possibly know, even though he was Board Certified there. They apparently did not know, that currently 55% of professors of U.S. medical schools were the European immigrants as well as that before WW2 U.S. physicians had to go to Europe, when they wanted to become specialists. There was no place in U.S., where a physician or surgeon could learn excellence in any field of medicine.

It was mandatory, that every resident took an in-training examination of their knowledge on the same Saturday of May. By the results of their residents the training institutions were graded. When I took that examination for the first time, on Monday morning after, the attitude toward me changed 180 degrees. It became known like a wildfire that I was the 10th best in U.S. My colleagues and professors, who looked down upon me until then, immediately changed their attitude. Suddenly I was a "Board Certified Surgeon". I was one of the top in U.S. for next two years as well. The distance between me and the remaining 17 residents was growing, so that for change they was growing jealousy of me among most of the residents. I worked hard, because I had at my disposal tools, that were not available in Czechoslovakia: human temporal bones in unlimited quantities, super fast drills that made ear surgery much quicker so that such procedures were shortened to one hour instead of three. It was due to that same surgery done with old dental drills, was heating temporal bone so much, that surgeon had to interrupt drilling every half hour so that bone could cool off.

(When I started my private practice in St. John's Hospital, the best in Los Angeles, I had an unpleasant encounter with a young anesthesiologist during my first temporal bone surgery, when I told him 60 minutes after start to terminate anesthesia, because I was going to finish in 10 minutes. His unprofessional reaction was: "You are already ending? All our surgeons are taking 3 and half hours to do this kind of ear surgery." He actually informed me that all 15 head&neck surgeons in private practice, that were on the staff of that hospital, were slow, because they did this kind of ear surgery infrequently and they "got rusty". I finished our conversation by stating: "Please, inform all your colleagues that my time for this kind of surgery is always one hour and fifteen minutes." My surgical skills, honed by hours of practice in the lab, and before in medical school during long hours of cadaver dissections, when I allowed our professor to rest, because I did not stop dissection for a second. The reason was that I came prepared by a study of anatomy at home, while rest of fellow-students were not. Plus our girls did everything possible to stay away from cadaver due to heavy formalin.)

During my training in head&neck surgery at Illinois Eye and Ear Infirmary I received a Master of Science degree in physiology of hearing in Department of Physiology of University of Illinois in Chicago as well. My thesis was about new diagnostic tool for conductive hearing loss after tympanoplasty, called tympanometry. I studied 60 such patients post surgery, that did not have desirable improvement of hearing. They underwent a complete audiological diagnosis and then exploratory surgery, where I lifted eardrum and inspected middle ear to see, what was the cause of conductive hearing loss and compared that with the findings of this new diagnostic tool. Chief of Department of Physiology told me, that my thesis good enough for Ph.D. degree, but that would require additional 6 months of study. Since by then I have already decided to leave Chicago for Los Angeles, I turned the offer down. My decision was due to the major changes of scientific freedom, that all medical schools always had up until then in U.S.. From then on, there were going to be under the absolute control of U.S. Pharma industry, as was decided by U.S. government. For this reason I also changed my mind about taking an offer to become an Assistant Professor of Head and Neck Surgery at Department of Head&Neck Surgery of Illinois Eye and Ear Infirmary, that I would have taken with all my heart, before I learned about this fundamental change in U.S. medicine and medical care.

Two months before the end of my second year of residency our senior residents stopped operating in preparation of their departures from Chicago for various U.S. locations of their private practice. Automatically we - now the seniors - were put in control of scheduling surgeries. Basically I had a full control of one operating room every other day. I was going to do my first rhinoplasty, the most difficult procedure in plastic surgery. I presented a patient to my most favored professor of plastic surgery. He described to me the surgical steps, which I had to follow. In the afternoon a patient was admitted to a hospital. Later on I came to his room to get from him a standard data about his health. Then a patient spoke up: "Doctor, I would like a nose like a little girl, you know." I was in a state of shock. This was my first nose job, I had the whole surgery lined up in my mind. Now the patient tells me that he wants a nose like little girl. There was no way I could reach my professor anymore as I did not have his private phone number (and cell phones did not exist yet). So we discussed with patients what he wants in detail. In the morning I waited for my professor and told him what happened. He was calm: "It's a piece of cake for you, such an experienced surgeon." He outlined the changes in surgical plan and left. I did surgery alone. A week later a patient came in for nasal splint removal. I did it and patient immediately ran for the mirror. His face lightened up: "Doc, I love it. This is exactly the nose that had in my mind. My three friends are waiting outside. Can I bring them in. They all want girl's noses." Then three men stepped in. Next day I did three rhinoplasties. My professor after seeing my first patient after surgery gave me his permission to use him as my attending surgeon without him being present in persona during operation until the end of my residency.

The news of my skills spread on Rush street like a fire, particularly among LGBT clientele, so that in about 4 months my surgical time was booked up. Of course I had also ear, sinus, endoscopy and major head&neck operations to do, since a minimum number of them were required in order to satisfy the requirements of American Board of H&N Surgery. I was operating on many patients from New York, Miami, Detroit. I did many surgeries never done before at Illinois Eye and Ear Infirmary, because of requests from LGBT clientele. I did two revision rhinoplasties done by Prof.Dr. Pitanguy, the most famous plastic surgeon in the world. I was set for life. But my success was clearly also a result of my aesthetic sense and not only surgical skills. Four months before the end of my residency I was called on the carpet by our chief of Department Dr Andrews. I was nervous when I entered his office. I asked a question: "What did I do?" With a big smile he asked me: "Doc, do you read Chicago Tribune? Here, look at this article. You are famous already." He points up to an article of front page, in which a known journalist accused me that I wasted public funds by doing unnecessary surgery on LGBT patients. Of course, the journalist did not bother to check up the facts, as usual. As resident I eared a meager stipend only, which was paid by University of Illinois. Prof.Dr. Andrews just smiled: "I just wanted you to know that you made it." I began to think. "Do I want to be secure for life in term of my income, but be isolated from ordinary people forever?" My answer was: "No" By moving to L.A., where I was unknown to LGBT crowd, my problem was solved.

I perhaps had made a wrong decision to move to L.A. I am still debating it even now. My work for for first Health Maintenance Organization turned out into complete fiasco. On the top of it, the new Governor of State of California Brown turned out to be a puppet of U.S. pharmaceutical industry. As his first move he significantly changed the status of medical profession by changing the whole structure of its organization. The Medical Board, which up to then consisted of only physicians, as was in all remaining States of the Union, was made up now of 6 physicians and 5 non-physicians. Malpractice insurance was increased by 4000% for no reason. As a result it was not affordable by all physicians starting in private practice. The medical profession went on strike. Medical care was provided only for emergencies. Since I terminated my employment for California Medical Group because they did not participate in physician's strike, I lost my only source of income for our family, payment of mortgage for just purchased first home, etc. Luckily, my excellent training in plastic surgery saved us. A partnership of two dermatologist just fell apart and they began compete with each other if hair transplantation business. One of them bought large building on biggest L.A. boulevard, with a dream to set up there cosmetic surgery center. Then he somehow learned about me. I began to work for him for 40% of surgical fees. He immediately began to advertise also his cosmetic surgery practice, which was immediately very successful. I was happy, because I was able to buy head&neck surgery practice from an old well known surgeon and continued to develop my other surgical skills.

At the same time my involvement in academia was also fulfilled. Following the advice of Prof.Dr. Lederer I began a voluntary teaching in Department of Head&Neck Surgery of C. Drew Medical School, one of two U.S. medical schools for minorities. Soon I was popular among residents, because I was the only professor, who allowed them to be actual surgeons. I was scrubbed so that I could whisper constant commands in surgeon's ear. They liked that very much. As an expression of their gratitude I was invited to their weekend parties, where I had an opportunity learn the about the soul of African American people, who they really are.

In 1976 my father died in communist Czechoslovakia by a horrible death as a result 9 consecutive strokes over a period of 18 months, as a complication of serum hepatitis with hepatic coma. He got that due to re-usable insulin needles during this unnecessary hospitalization to find a correct dose of insulin that was now necessary for his type 2 diabetes mellitus. His diabetologist was an old friend, with whom he shared a room in student dormitory. As a result of nine strokes, his brain was severely damaged and he had to be kept in a netted bed on a closed psychiatric ward. I did not know anything about his illness, because my mother did not tell me about it until 4 months after his death. During her subsequent visit in U.S. she told me all the details. After a few days I made a postmortem pledge to my father, to give all my free time and talent to find the treatment, which would saved the life of my father. Three years later I found it: fetal cell transplantation.

I was by then an excellent surgeon for 24 years. In my busy surgical practice in Los Angeles and Orange County to find time to honor the pledge to my father was very difficult. But I ‘got it, indeed’. It has been amazing to observe what can be accomplished therapeutically by BCRO fetal cell transplantation for “incurable/untreatable” diseases in all fields of medicine, with an absolute safety(!): to this date not a single serious complication in so treated patients was observed on five continents.

In 1981 the author learned of New Hope Parents Association, U.S. non-profit foundation of parents of handicapped children (mostly due to genetic and chromosomal diseases), which used to invite Prof. Dr. Franz Schmid, a German pediatrician and the biggest living expert worldwide in zellentherapie (cell therapy), to come to the U.S. 3 to 4 times a year, to inform the parents of such therapy for their children and to do consultations for zellentherapie treatment, which such children could obtain at State Pediatric Hospital in Aschaffenburg, West Germany. New Hope fought with the U.S. FDA for German zellentherepie to be allowed in the U.S., but to no avail. This is how I met in 1981 Prof. Dr. Schmid in Los Angeles, who right then agreed to become my teacher, until his untimely death in 1997. He was a Professor of Pediatrics at Heidelberg Medical School, a general director of State Pediatric Hospital in Aschaffenburg, unofficially the ‘German Center for Zellentherapie in pediatrics’, and the Chairman of both committees on zellentherapie of BundesGesundheitAmt (BGA), the German counterpart of the U.S. FDA.

Subsequently I started a cooperation with Biotonus Clinique Bon-Port in Montreux, Switzerland, a well known clinic of "zellentherapie", where I was going to do "bio-cosmetic surgery" (combination of cell therapy as anti-aging treatment with surgical rejuvenation of face and neck), launched at that time in West Germany.

In September 1988 the just created BCRO began its work in the field of fetal cell transplantation in Yugoslavia, where the colleagues decided to base the project at the Medical School in Sarajevo, today Bosnia/Hercegovina. That decision proved ominous, since in early 1990 the project had to be terminated due to start of civil war.

In October 1989, the author proposed in writing to the USSR Minister of Health Prof. Dr. Chazov, to create in Moscow a joint venture between Bio-Cellular Research Organization (U.K.) and the USSR Ministry of Health under the name ‘International Institute of Biological Medicine’ (IIBM), primarily to do a clinical and a basic research on human fetal cell transplantation. Surprisingly a positive response arrived in about one month.

After the breakdown of USSR in December 1991, the 49% of shares of IIBM was taken over by Ministry of Health of Russian Federation.

In 1989 U.S.FDA permitted HANA Biologicals, a division of 3M Corp.,to do a clinical trial in treatment of type 1 diabetes mellitus by human fetal cell transplantation, while continued its attitude that animal fetal cell transplantation is a ‘Frankenstein treatment'. The author spoke with medical director of Hana Biologics three times, since he thought that it would be easier to do research in U.S., but it was clear that their approach was completely wrong. In 1991 they published their results of treatment of 51 diabetic patients of type 1 by human fetal cell transplantation with 0% success rate!

IIBM project in USSR began in 1990 with participation of two best hospitals in Moscow, one smaller one, only for the leaders of the country, second one for upper echelons of "nomenclatura", then the huge main military hospital, and the 16 USSR/Russia top medical centers/research institutes, all in Moscow and the vicinity.

'"Kremlin Hospital" to serve the ABSOLUTE TOP and Central Clinical Hospital for the TOP echelons of Russia, IIBM had a permit to treat there by FCT both Russian and foreign private patients;

'Burdenko Main Hospital of Russian Army (Prof.Dr. Briusov, Chief Surgeon): use of FCT in surgical tx of gunshot wounds caused by new bullets used in Chechnya war;

Research Center of Pediatrics (Academician Studenikin): use of FCT in tx of genetic diseases, M.Gaucher, chron. hepatitis, aplastic anemia, cirrhosis of liver, cerebral palsy, cardiomyopathies, inborn brain damage;

Pediatric Hospital of Moscow First Medical School (Academician Baranov): use of FCT in tx of collagen diseases;

Research Center of Endocrinology (Academician Dedov): use of FCT in tx of nanismus, congenital hypothyroidism;

First Republican Pediatric Hospital (Prof.Dr. Burkov): use of FCT for transplantation of human fetal testis;

Rehabilitation Center of First Moscow Medical School (Prof.Dr. Grinio): use of FCT in tx uf muscular dystrophies;

Research Center of Transplantology and Artificial Organs (Academician Shumakov): use of FCT in tx of complications of type 1 diabetes mellitus, male infertility, hypo-endocrinopathies;

Sklifasovsky Research Center of Emergency Medicine (Prof.Dr. Lebedev): use of FCT in tx of Parkinson's disease, aphasia after severe brain injuries, post cerebrovascular accident damage;

Moscow Burn Center (Prof.Dr. Smirnov): use of FCT for tx of infected (surgical) 3rd and 4th degree thermal burns;

Research Center of Medical Radiology in Obninsk (Academician Tsyb): use of FCT in tx of post therapeutic irradiation damage of soft tissues;

Research Center of Biophysics (Academician Iljin): use of FCT in tx of accidental irradiation damage;

Research Center of Obstetrics, Gynaecology and Perinatology (Academician Kulakov): use of FCT in tx of early menopause of various etiologies (incl. castration), intrauterine brain damage (early tx), endometriosis, infertility

Research Center of Human Reproduction (Prof.Dr. Vasiliev): use of FCT in tx of male infertility and impotence;

Priorov Central Institute of Traumatology and Orthopaedics (Prof.Dr. Shaposhnikov): use of FCT in surgery of inborn severe deformities of upper extremity;

Helmholtz Research Center of Ophthalmology (Prof.Dr. Brovkina): use of FCT in tx of myopathy of eye muscles, perforation of the eye after therapeutic irradiation;

Fedorov Eye Research Institute (Prof.Dr. Fedorov): use of FCT in tx of retinitis pigmentosa, diabetic retinopathy;

Research Institute of Medical Technology (Prof.Dr. Belych): biodegrable biopolymers saturated with FCT for plastic&reconstructive and orthopedic surgery;

First Stomatological Institute: use of FCT in tx of severe parodontosis.

Only one major research institute, Research Institute of Oncology of Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, did not respond to IIBM requests for a meeting. It was the first Institute, that was "snatched" by U.S. Big Pharma after the breakdown of USSR on December 29, 1991.

During my first stay in Moscow after Russian New Year on January 15, 1992 (Russian calendar runs 14 days later than ours), the Director of Biological Section of Russian Academy of Sciences Prof.Dr. Rem V. Petrov greeted me back in with following words: "Maikl, do you know the biggest news of the day? Moscow is full of American spies. U.S. FDA opened up a large office in Moscow." Obviously, it was not possible to accomplish that during two weeks after the dissolution of USSR, during during New year holiday, when the life stopped in Russia. I replied: "Rem Victorovich, that quickly? It is a miracle!" It was obviously prepared a long time ago...

Treatment of complications of type 1 diabetes mellitus by human fetal cell transplantation was an official USSR project, which was launched in 1970’s by Research Institute of Transplantology and Artificial Organs of USSR Ministry of Health, which reported its success already in 1979 in peer-reviewed international medical journal. They discovered a secret that was an obsession of Prof.Dr. Niehans all his life. The success of Soviets slowed down to a near standstill in 1991 due to breakdown of USSR and their inability to obtain a sufficient quantity of human fetuses of the second trimester to make fetal cell transplants for all patients that required such treatment. Their juvenile diabetes mellitus project was revived by IIBM by using human fetal cell transplantation, and likewise animal fetal cell transplantation prepared from rabbit fetuses from closed colony of rabbits. It was a real breakthrough in medicine because juvenile diabetes mellitus was and is the "real killer" in children. (Prof.Dr. Paul Niehans, the "father of cell therapy", was obsessed his entire life to find the treatment of juvenile diabetes, without luck.)

The excellent results of the USSR (and IIBM) in the treatment of complications of type 1 diabetes mellitus were in 1999 submitted to U.S. FDA in order to obtain license applications for Bio-Cellular Research Organization to run clinical trials of treatment of untreatable diabetic retinopathy, nephropathy, lower extremity arterial disease and polyneuropathy as a complications of diabetes mellitus type 1 by BCRO method of fetal cell transplantation (of rabbit origin) in U.S.A. BCRO received FDA-IND numbers 8214 for FCT treatment of advanced retinopathy, 8217 for FCT tx of advanced retinopathy, 8218 for FCT tx of lower extremity arterial disease and 8219 for FCT tx of polyneuropathy, all as a complication of diabetes mellitus type 1, but U.S. FDA was not giving in as U.S. pharmaceutical industry was not interested in finding the treatment of live threatening diabetes mellitus type 1 in children and often also in adults!

Up until the submission of our four IND applications (prepared by the author personally) in February 1999, the cooperation with U.S. FDA, from its inception in November 1996, was friendly, except for the fact that U.S. FDA did not want, for no good reason, to allow a study of use of IIBM fetal cell transplantation treatment of brittle diabetes in children, where both USSR and IIBM had 90% success rate. From February 1999 on, it was increasingly clear that U.S.FDA will never permit the BCRO clinical trials in the U.S., that would confirm the excellent results of USSR transplantologists and IIBM. The 31 members of the Health Committees of U.S. Senate and Congress ignored our loud complaints, that U.S.FDA was evaluating the results of our fetal cell transplantation using criteria for drugs of chemical origin(!) (it was completely illogical to try to evaluate a treatment by transplantation of live fetal cells by using the rules made for drugs of chemical origin!).

In 1994 TASS (Press Agency of USSR) issued a press release for Arabic world and soon I was invited to U.A.E., and then later to Qatar and Kuwait, to examine first group of patients Dubai, which then sent their patients for treatment in Moscow. Later in 1994 - 6, IIBM was treating patients regularly in the biggest governmental hospital in Doha, Qatar.

The first Symposium on transplantation of human fetal tissues, under the sponsorship of the Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, on December 4-7, 1995, was a large success, with 34 scientific presentations in 7 sections: general introduction: state of affairs and the perspectives, treatment of diabetes mellitus by human fetal cell transplantation, its use in neurology, in gynaecology and andrology, in pediatrics, in surgery, in other fields of medicine. - Over 500 cases of human fetal brain cell transplantation, with individual(!) combination of fetal brain cell transplants, via lumbar puncture, in patients with various incurable neurodegenerative diseases, and post cerebro-vascular accidents, etc., with respective success rates, were given in 6 different reports of neurology section.

International Institute of Biological Medicine and the author personally, invited six months in advance, the U.S. medical journal “TRANSPLANTATION PROCEEDINGS” to record all four days of the IIBM conference in Moscow on December 4-7, 1995, and publish the same in their usual way. We were assured in writing by the President of their Editorial Board, that they would come to Moscow to record the entire proceedings and to publish the same.

Two days before the start of the conference the President of ‘Transplantation Proceedings’ informed the author that the staff of ‘Transplantation Proceedings’ will not come to Moscow, to do recording, and will not publish any of the presentations, without any explanation of the reason(s).

Because of exceptionally difficult conditions in Russia at that time, caused entirely by the U.S.A., and the belief of Mr. Gorbachov that the U.S. (and the Pope John Paul II) will play the clean game, and his dissolution of USSR, conference organizers were unable to find local resources to handle the recording and publishing of all proceedings on such a short notice. As a result, manuscripts of presentations of all authors were never published.

From 1997 on the author has been on his own, also due to death of his teacher Prof.Dr. Schmid on January 7, 1998, since he had no other teachers, because the previous generation of the fellow members of the German Association of Zellentherapie either died or retired, in the same period of time. Then author himself became a lecturer and ‘healer’ (as declared in 2015 by a Swami Chakradhari of Hindu religion), treating patients by ‘BCRO fetal cell transplantation’, of rabbit fetal origin, and lecturing physicians all over the world.

In 2009 there was a 1-day medical conference dedicated to the author in Moscow, during which his picture was on the screen at all times, accompanied by slogan "E.Michael Molnar, M.D., the father of 'kletochnaia terapia' in Russia". I did not know about it, I was informed about it by the present Russian friends one year later.

After leaving Russian Federation in 1997, because the of the status of Russian Federation as a U.S. colony, which included eventually complete control of medical research by U.S. Big Pharma, did not allow continuation of IIBM project, the author organized further research differently, by lecturing and educating physicians and to perform BCRO live fetal cell transplantation himself worldwide: at the beginning in Germany, Switzerland, Italy, Czech Republic, Slovakia, Austria, Mexico, where also German cell therapy was known. The results of treatment of patients with incurable/untreatable diseases of central nervous system, which was completely new, were very much appreciated in those countries.

Then from February 2006 on, the author was lecturing, do consultations and treatment by BCRO fetal cell transplantations, in multiple cities of many Asian countries: in China, (as well as in Hong Kong and Macau), Taiwan, in many cities of south/southwest of India, in all major cities of Indonesia (on islands of Sumatra, Java, Bali) Thailand, Philippines, Malaysia, Singapore, Australia, and on remaining 4 continents: Turkey, Panama, Nigeria, South Africa, Mexico, Switzerland, Austria, Italy, Czech Republic, Slovakia. The whole day lectures of 9 hours duration were conducted by the author also to the groups of local physicians in South Korea, Cambodia, Georgia, Egypt, Kuwait, Romania. Subsequent to U.S. FDA issuing regulations about preparation of cell, tissue and organ xeno-transplantations in September 1997, BCRO completed the development of own method of manufacturing of fetal cell transplants of animal fetal origin, and after filing U.S. Patent application in 1998, began its own preparation of fetal precursor cell transplants, from rabbit fetuses (from own closed colony of rabbits, started in 1973), individually for each patient, in July 1998. BCRO has not discovered a procedure(!) of fetal precursor cell transplantation, it found a method of preparation(!) of fetal precursor cell transplants, of any of 220 kinds of cells that all mammals are made of, for clinical use, that can be implanted with ‘state-of-art’ safety, and without immunosupression whatsoever(!). Today only about 90 kinds of cells are completely described by science(!) and as such are routinely used for fetal precursor cell transplantation in medical practice. In 1997 BCRO moved its commercial preparation of fetal cell transplantats from rabbit fetuses, raised in a closed colony, as defined by the World Health Organization, by BCRO technique, to Slovakia. After author's departure from the Russian Federation in 1997, the intrathecal fetal cell transplantation (from closed colony of rabbits) has been utilized by him to treat adult (past the age of 12 years) incurable/untreatable diseases of brain and spinal on most of 5 continents, and that included successful treatment of Alzheimer’s disease and other dementias. The 'rabbit fetal cell xenotransplantation’ has been completely safe. For children, up to the age of 12, the same 'fetal cell transplants’ have been used as well, but without requiring intrathecal implantation (via lumbar puncture). The best for the reader would be to immerse himself ( or herself) in the deep study of https://bio-cellular-research.com. Besides that the only latest textbook in this field of medicine in English has been the author’s “Fetal Precursor Cell Transplantation. BCRO Fetal Precursor Cell Transplantation”, 980 pages, posted as a new edition on amazon.com, in January 2015.

NOTES: Anglophone medical literature uses the term ‘cell transplantation’, while German literature has used the term ‘cell therapy’ (‘zellentherapie’) for implantation of tissue fragments of animal fetal origin. Russian literature uses the term 'kletochnaia terapia' (which means the same as German 'zellentherapie') for human fetal cell transplantation. - German law does not recognize the term ‘cell transplantation’ and U.S. FDA banned the ‘cell therapy’ sometimes in 1956.

There is a discrepancy between terms ‘cell therapy’ and ‘cell transplantation’ when it comes to an implantation of tissue fragments of animal fetal origin. ‘Cell transplantation’ includes only ‘fresh cell therapy’ as in the original definition of Niehans, but not the use of preserved cells (preservation by lyophilization causes cells to lose cell membrane and thereby they are no longer live, preservation by freezing - as it used to be done in those days – leads to death of 85 – 95% of cells, mostly during thawing process). Today in German ‘cell therapy’ (‘zellentherapie’) means use of animal preserved cells or cellular material for treatment, while ‘fresh cell therapy’ (‘frischzellentherapie’) means the use of freshly obtained (up to 2 hours after death) fetal tissue fragments of animal origin for therapeutic implantation.

Fetal precursor cell transplantation was introduced into clinical practice officially by Prof.Dr. Paul Niehans in 1931 and has historically preceded organ transplantation by several decades. It shall dominate the medicine of 21st century.

Brief summary of author’s experience with fetal precursor cell allo- and xeno-transplantation.

This method of treatment has been around for over 90 years in several different countries: Germany, Switzerland, France, Italy, Spain, Austria, USSR, etc. Political, philosophical, professional, language, and other barriers have caused the absence of scientific communication in this new field of medicine between two pioneering countries: Germany and U.S.S.R. The author succeeded in overcoming this barrier and accomplished a symbiosis between 'zellentherapie' and 'kletochnaia terapia' under 'BCRO fetal precursor cell transplantation'. '''''' Germany has been the only country in the West where various methods of cell therapy / transplantation have been widely used since 1950-ies. The form of this treatment known as ‘fresh cell therapy’ (’frischzellentherapie’), has been used to this date. In February 2000 the Bundesverfassungsgericht (‘German Supreme Court’) in Karlsruhe, case number: 1 BvR 420/97, ruled positively about a continuous approval of this therapeutic method. Since over 800,000 patients have been treated by fresh cell therapy in Germany during the past 65 years, this was quite an impressive statement. (Another more than 4 million patients have been treated during this time by frozen and lyophilized ‘cell-therapeutica’, registered in West Germany until 1987.)

In 1984 the Ministry of Health of U.S.S.R. issued ‘Recommendations on the Method’ (the same type of document as ‘U.S. FDA regulations’), dealing with cell transplantation that amounted to the official approval of this treatment. VI.BIBLIOGRAPHY [76] It confirmed a completion of a major pre-clinical and clinical research in this field in the U.S.S.R.VI.BIBLIOGRAPHY [78], which led to the successful treatment of a patient with complications of type 1 diabetes mellitus by human fetal cell transplantation, already in 1979, and thereafter thousands of other juvenile diabetics and patients suffering of other incurable/untreatable diseases). Since the Ministry of Health of U.S.S.R. put its Research Institute of Transplantology and Artificial Organs of the Ministry of Health of U.S.S.R. (‘RITAOMH’) in charge of this work, and the transplantologists, ‘big surgeons’, were much more interested in organ transplantation than in ‘just simple injections of cells’, the method did not attract much attention within the socialized health care system. Only after IIBM became active in the new Russian Federation in 1991, the fetal cell transplantation became known as a therapeutic method also outside of the ‘Fourth Department’, health care system for ‘nomenclatura’ (‘apparatchiks’), and ‘Third Department’, health care system in the military, and was included in the list of approved therapies by the Ministry of Health Care of Russian Federation, health care system for the general public, and received a governmental code.

By the decree of the Minister of Health of Russian Federation of November 1994 it was a duty of a diabetologist in Russia to refer a diabetic patient for fetal cell transplantation, if indicated. VI.BIBLIOGRAPHY [77]

By the time of its first international symposium in December 1995, in Moscow, IIBM treated by fetal precursor cell allo- and xeno-transplantation around 3,000 private patients with a variety of diseases, besides many thousands treated under various clinical research projects. The number of Russian patients, that were treated free of charge under different research projects, was never kept and is impossible to estimate. In the span of 4 years (1993 - 6) IIBM treated the same number of registered patients as 12 top Soviet research institutes in 1979 - demise of ussr in 1991.

The major contribution of IIBM was its never presented work, carried out together with the staff of RITAOMH, in which the clinical results of cell transplantation by fetal precursor allo- and xeno-transplants were compared. This study proved the overall superiority of fetal cell xeno-transplantation. The main reason was a much better quality of the animal (rabbit) source of fetal cell transplants. While the animal (rabbit) material could be obtained always (!) perfectly fresh, i.e. cells were 100% live when planted onto the tissue culture medium, the same could hardly ever be stated about human fetal cells, where for obvious reasons there was always a delay between the time of death and the dissection of human fetal cadaver, usually quite substantial, so that the viability of cells at the time of their planting onto the tissue culture medium was questionable. For clarification, ultimately there were 12 major medical research institutes of transplantology in 5 different republics of U.S.S.R. involved in cell transplantation. It should be noted that medical science was organized in U.S.S.R. under a ‘pyramidal principle’, i.e. in each field of science there was a central U.S.S.R. institute in charge for the whole country, for example RITAOMH in transplantology, and then there were central institutes in each field of medical science in charge in each of 15 republics of U.S.S.R.

Although RITAOMH was in overall control in the transplantology, the main institutes of each Republic had a latitude in their actions. Initially, some of them were carrying out only fetal precursor cell allo-transplantation, while others only fetal cell xeno-transplantation, with bovine or porcine fetuses as sources of transplants, and some of these institutes carried out both fetal precursor cell allo- and xeno-transplantation. Ultimately human fetal precursor cell transplantation was abandoned by all of them in favor of animal fetal cell transplantation. Among 12 research institutes involved in cell transplantation, only RITAOMH switched from bovine and porcine fetuses to the rabbit fetuses as a source of cell xeno-transplants, and that began in 1987. The change of the source of fetal cell transplants coincided with the fall of communism, and of the U.S.S.R., which caused a major breakdown of Russian medical science, medical industry, and health care, with a subsequent decrease of medical publication activity as well.

As a result, there is much less published material about the cell xeno-transplantation with fetal and newborn rabbits as a source of transplants, as compared with bovine and porcine fetuses. In ‘Bibliography’ are included also dissertations for the degree of ‘Candidate of Medical Sciences’ (‘Ph.D.’), and for the degree ‘Doctor od Medical Sciences’, mandatory for all future professors, carried out under the roof of RITAOMH, summaries of lectures from the various ‘All-U.S.S.R.’ congresses on cell, tissue and organ transplantation: 10th All-U.S.S.R. Symposium on Organ Transplantation, 1985, in Kiev (now Ukraine), 4th Congress of Ukrainian Endocrinologists, 1987, in Kiev, Symposium on Transplantologic Methods of Treatment of Diabetes Mellitus, 1988, in Riga (now Latvia), 3rd All-U.S.S.R.Congress of Endocrinology, 1989, in Tashkent (now Uzbekistan), 11th All-U.S.S.R. Symposium on Organ Transplantation, 1990, in Lvov, (now Ukraine), and from the symposiums at RITAOMH in Moscow, as well as from the yearly International Symposia ‘Transplantation of Endocrine Pancreas’, organized by the Institute for Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolic Diseases, University Clinical Center, Belgrade, Yugoslavia.

Without deep knowledge of human and veterinary embryology, cytology of human diseases (never studied in medical schools), detailed pathophysiology of human diseases, availability of BCRO fetal precursor cell transplants will be of no value for the treatment of patient with incurable/untreatable disease(s).

WHAT WAS HAPPENING WITH IIBM while all this hard work in fetal cell transplantation project was going on.

International Institute of Biological Medicine was officially created between branch of USSR Academy of Medical Sciences, the Research Institute of Care of Mother and Child, and IIBM, in early December 1991 in Moscow. - On December 28, 1991 USSR collapsed, e.g. USSR did not exist anymore, and there was new state of Russian Federation and its government in its place. Remaining 15 republics of former USSR became independent republics. U.S. President Reagan and the Pope John Paul II convinced President Gorbachov, that USA and the West will help restore Russia to prosperity in no time. "Just sign at the dotted line".... Mr. Gorbachov trusted this two "very honest gentlemen".

In January 1992 Mr. Yeltsin, a hopeless chronic alcoholic, that refused any treatment "because he was no drunkard at all" appeared on the scene as the only candidate for President. He was elected, un-opposed. Six months later food stores in Moscow were empty. People were forming lines waiting long hours for delivery of bread. Food was found on the black market only, for hard currency. Hunger was widespread.

Shortly thereafter CNN cameras appeared on the roof of buildings surrounding the parliament. A few days later the word was out that Vice-President Ryzhkov organized a military coup against the President. By agreement there was a vote of one group of elite military units against vote of opposing elite units. President Yeltsin won by narrow margin. Our daughter was a freshman at Tufts University then. One of her subjects were "international studies". She wrote a paper about the situation in Russia, in which she used the facts that I told her. I was spending in Moscow every other week, so my information was more up-to-date than what U.S. press was feeding American public. She got C- on her paper with a comment of her professor "where did she hear such a non-sense". I wrote the professor and the Chancellor of Tufts University. Three months later U.S. media were filled up with stories about heavy drinking of Russian President Yeltsin, making him unfit to fulfill his duties. Interestingly enough, that President Reagan and Pope John Paul II did not know about it when to every citizen of Russia this was not any news.

Fortunately already in USSR, I passed a tough investigation, because of my earlier departure from communist Czechoslovakia to U.S., so that I was trusted to organize the fetal cell transplantation project in new Russia. In April 1992 IIBM announced publicly its existence by press conference in Moscow. At that time the construction of our laboratory for preparation of human fetal transplants was already finished and the futuristic facility for liquid nitrogen freezing was built by Soviet/Russian cosmic industry, so that in August 1992 we could start with the preparation of fetal cell transplants for patient treatment and fill our liquid nitrogen freezer.

In September we announced the launching of human fetal cell transplantation treatment of patients in December 1992. Decision was made to start with treatment of Down syndrome children from specialized hospital for children with congenital and chromosomal diseases in Moscow, what was done in honor of Prof.Dr. Schmid, the father of such treatment.

In October Prof.Dr. Kulakov received a letter from Stern, largest magazine in Germany, requesting an interview by its Moscow correspondent. It was scheduled for the day of inaugural treatment of first Down syndrome patient in early December 1992. Everything turned out well on that day, including our interview with Stern. But they played a dirty game. They dressed up their photographer in the nursing uniform of Russian Institute of Obstetrics, Gynaecology and Perinatology of Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, witch was a mammoth institution, the largest of its kind in the world, and he gained an illegal entry as a nurse. All night he took a photographs of patients in very busy obstetrical unit. In the morning he left, not recognized as an intruder

Two weeks later my daughter, a 14 years old student International School of Geneva, Switzerland, the official school of United Nations, established in 1921, came home with a recent issue of Stern in her hand, sobbing. On the entire front page of Stern was a photograph of 6 months old stillborn, dead in the uterus for a few days, displaying all colors of long dead human body, held by feet with the hand of old, obviously busy, mid-wife. A horror! Inside of the issue was the interview by me and our Russian director, many negative comments from the West and multiple shocking pictures of patients, fully recognizable, taken without permission. This was a bomb for everyone in Russia. This was how the West was going to play the game with post-Soviet Russia. Thank you, Pope John-Paul II and my former neighbor, the U.S. President Reagan, in the Riviera portion of Pacific Palisades, California!

After that, in the first three months of 1993, all major European magazines published negative stories about IIBM and Russia. I did not see a majority of them. I was an unwanted "star" in all of them. In June - as a re-bound, Russian team from Mosfilm asked IIBM for cooperation in production of a rebuttal. We agreed. I appeared in this film also, speaking Russian for the first time in my life. That documentary film was shown on large screens in major squares of all European cities. This film was actually made for Spiegel TV, the largest private TV producer in Germany!

Our Bio-Cellular Research Organization had its German branch in Munich, its head was my close friend Reiner Oppenheimer. His father was one of those Jewish heroes, who became famous for hunting down in South America the old German Nazis and bringing them to Israeli courts for justice specifically Adolph Eichmann, Reiner found out all about who did that film and all dirty details. He put a stop to this non-sense with the owners of Spiegel TV. He subsequently organized a meeting between the German female producer of that film and myself. It happened in well known old Geneva Hotel Les Bergues. The main restaurant was closed so that we, the lady producer and I, could speak freely for 4 and a half hours. For the last hour the producer cried on my shoulder, deeply apologizing for what she had done to me, to us. She told me that she was given by her bosses my dossier kept by the company in Philadelphia, PA. and she had no reason not to trust everything that was in those documents. Now when she met me in person, she could see that I was totally different than the man described in those documents. She told me that she is determined to tell the truth in new film. Of course, management of Spiegel did not to spend any money on that so they turned her idea down, as expected. I met her two more times by her request. She stopped working for Spiegel TV, when she was not allowed to rectify her wrongdoing based on the false data provided by her employer. When I met last time at Zurich Airport she already had a new job.

Because in this film I was depicted as an anti-Semite, Reiner Oppenheimer visited in Vienna the Founder of Anti-Defamation League, Mr. Wiesenthal - to whom he had easy access, because of his father's long work in the hunt for Adolph Eichman - who firmly told him that I was not! (I was very upset by that accusation, because my paternal grandmother was Jewish, married to a Jewish man, and after his death converted before she was re-married to my Austrian grandfather, who was Catholic. The family, which helped me to come to U.S. from communism, was Jewish. I lived in their house in Los Angeles for 7 months, before I passed my licensing exam in California and began to work as a physician in 7 months. "Big Pharma" did not stop there. Just 3 months later I received a phone call in our home in France from a man with a last name of old Hungarian noble family: Count von Szechenyi. He introduced himself as a son of a lady, whom we met at a Caribbean cruise a few months earlier. Her daughter was of the same age as ours and the girls became friends. Our daughter attended that same year a summer school in Connecticut, where her new friend lived nearby and our daughter spent two weekends in their house. Her mother was an Austrian, a granddaughter of a famous Viennese music composer. She was divorced from Count von Szechenyi. He asked me for a meeting the next time I came to Moscow. I was going there every other week. This young man handed me his business card, from which I learned that he was an associate producer of CBS "60 Minutes TV show". He asked me if I would not mind to meet with Mike Wallace, who was taping their show in Moscow. I was not an avid TV viewer, so I did not know who Mike Wallace was. We met with Mike Wallace the next day. And then every day for the rest of the week. Naturally next day - Wednesday - I immediately realized, what are these people up to.

They interviewed in front of camera - in my presence - the President of Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, Vice-President of Russian Academy of Sciences, both were asked the same question, if they knew me personally, and knew me very well... This were stupid questions, because before I could meet these people for the first time, and allowed to get into their inner circle, etc. etc., I was very deeply checked, very thoroughly, by KGB. - Later on I saw the full 60 minutes show about our fetal cell transplantation project - and myself. They did visit Prof.Dr.Schmid in his hospital in Germany as well, and asked him the same question: "Do you know Dr. Molnar and how well do you know him?" His answer was "No". When I came home from Moscow, Prof.Dr. Schmid called me and told me that CBS 60 Minutes lied, when they obviously attached his answer to another question to one when they asked him if he knows him. He was abhorred by the morals of the producers of CBS 60 Mi

During the week of shooting we treated also a 4-years old Puertorican girl with Down Syndrome, who was later on not recognized by a school psychologist as being born with such a genetic disease, when she entered a regular school at age of 6. This was the result after the recommended four fetal cell transplantations! She was shown on that CBS 60 Minutes and her father was ridiculed by Mike Wallace. Her father wrote me about that with the comment, that if Mike Wallace would cross his path alone just one time, it would be the last time. A few years later I saw on French TV a documentary film apparently done with his approval. Mike Wallace was not his real name. He was a Polish Jew with a typical name: he changed it when he immigrated U.S.A. On that film he was surprisingly candid. He suffered from manic-depressive psychosis, tried to commit suicide three times, underwent multiple long hospitalizations in closed psychiatric ward.... I read in International Herald Tribune, which was one of the most respected papers in the western world, an article which stated that there is only 4,500 people in the world, who would like to murder Mike Wallace, if they could get to him. He was earning 2 million U.S. dollars a year from 60 Minutes Show. If we would have that kind of money for research available to IIBM in Moscow we would accomplish medical miracles. To give them to one sick psychiatric patient in just one year was not correct. Big Pharma is able to earn that money on opioids every second.

In April 1993, our International Institute of Biological Medicine in Moscow was visited by the medical director of Sansum Medical Research Foundation, Santa Barbara, California, who asked me if we would not treat their U.S. patients with advanced diabetes mellitus of type 1, with ncurable/untreatable complications: diabetic retinopathy, leading to blindness, and diabetic nephropathy, leading to kidney failure, requiring hemodialysis treatments 3x a week, and later on kidney transplantation(s), and if failed then death. Under wide U.S. publicity, TV and printed media, with the title of L.A. Times headline stressing the use of ‘Russian rabbit fetal cells’ for fetal cell transplantation, we treated the first group of 24 of those patients on August 1, 1993. It was going to be a cooperation between IIBM and Sansum: IIBM would treat the Sansum patients with our method of FCT, with our human fetal cell transplants, that we brought from Moscow in our portable liquid nitrogen freezer, built by Soviet/Russian Cosmic industry and three physicians of IIBM would treat the Sansum patients: I was doing the fetal cell transplantations and two Russian physicians would load the syringes with appropriate fetal cell transplants for each patient. The FCT treatment of 24 patients took less than 3 hours and was uneventful.

When we arrived on July 31, 1993, the L.A. Airport staff was upside down, when the Swiss Air "spilled out" its special cargo, that looked like a huge smoking monster.

(Prior to that, we spent a week in Santa Barbara and Southern California for discussion with Sansum staff, and to get acquainted and sign an agreement about our cooperation. On July 4 holiday we were invited to a large party of Santa Barbara billionaires, who on the spot donated $600,000,- for Sansum Medical Research Foundation, but we received not a dime from that.)

Subsequently there was a complete silence on the part of Sansum although by signed agreement during our July visit, when we were enticed to sign this agreement, we were going to treat their additional 24 patients in August/September 1993. After some unpleasant written correspondence the manuscript of the article with the results of the treatment of 24 of their patients was submitted by Sansum to "Transplantation Proceedings"(allegedly"). IIBM is in the possession of the manuscript, with corrected names of main authors, mine and that of all Russian colleagues, with detailed analysis of the results of all 24 patients. Needless to say, this article was never published by "Transplantation Proceedings"

Then one year later, L.A. Times in the persona of its chief scientific writer, the very same one, who wrote a long article informing the world about IIBM/Sansum cooperation in July 1993, reported that Sansum Medical Research Foundation organized an international medical conference, to which they invited a variety of international guests with a minimum experience in actual treatment of complications of diabetes mellitus by fetal cell transplantation, but forgot to invite the author and participating two IIBM physicians. The front page of article in L.A. Times, the whole Sansum project was described as their own work(!), although the author carried out fetal cell transplantations on all 24 patients alone and all fetal cell transplants given to 24 patients were prepared by IIBM in Moscow and brought in to Santa Barbara by a portable liquid nitrogen freezer, built by Soviet cosmic industry. The chief scientific editor of L.A. Times was well aware of these facts and was reminded of this by the author in writing, as was the chief editor of L.A. Times(!). Dr. Charles Pedersen, the medical director, and his wife Dr. Jovanovic-Pedersen, the member of the Board of Directors of California Medical Association, submitted the manuscript to "Transplantation Proceedings" without giving the names of the author and other participating Russian physicians, thereby commiting the scientific fraud or theft. The rest of the professionals of Sansum walked away from Drs. Pedersens and organized the continuation of cooperation with IIBM at Los Gatos Community Hospital in Los Gatos, Calif.

On August 1, 1993, a total of 24 U.S. patients with complications of IDDM, predominanly of retinopathy and nephropathy, were treated by IIBM in the clinical facility of Sansum in Santa Barbara, Calif. A manuscript describing the positive clinical results of this trial was submitted for publication to ‘Transplantation’ by medical teams of Sansum and IIBM. It reported on the treatment of 24 patients with Type 1 diabetes mellitus with retinopathy, nephropathy or both, with duration of diabetes of 21±7 years. During 12 months’ follow-up the insulin requirement was significantly reduced by 21±8% (p=0.0260), systolic blood pressure was significantly reduced from 120±17 to 111±13 (p=0.012), and diastolic blood pressure from 78±8 to 72±8 (p=0.005). Total body weights were reduced from 153±30 to 150±28 (p=0.189), and HbA1c from 7.1±1.4 to 6.8±1.2 (p=0.222). Plasma levels of C-peptide increased from 0.06 ng/ml before treatment to 0.186 ng/ml one year later (p=0.01). There was no further progression of retinopathy and nephropathy in any of the 24 patients during the one year follow-up. One female patient became pregnant during this time. VI.BIBLIOGRAPHY [115]

A California company, created by Dr. Bent Formby, Director of Research of Sansum, organized a continuation of these clinical trials in 1995 at Los Gatos Community Hospital, Los Gatos, Calif. VI.BIBLIOGRAPHY [113]. On three different occasions in 1995, altogether 32 U.S. patients with complications of IDDM (n=27) and NIDDM (n=5) were treated by IIBM in the clinic facilities of Los Gatos Community Hospital, again by combined fetal precursor allo- / xeno- cell transplantation, as at Sansum in 1993. During 12 months’ follow-up insulin requirement was significantly reduced by 41±8% (p=0.001), blood glucose levels stabilized from 229±44 mg/dl to 104±21 mg/dl, and plasma levels of C-peptide increased significantly from 0.09 ng/ml to 0.49 ng/ml (p=0.001). Diabetic complications of every patient remained stable, the creatinine clearance of one patient with diabetic nephropathy improved from 39 ml/min to 58 ml/min. (112) The islet cell transplants used in the treatment of all 56 U.S. patients were prepared by IIBM from fetal / newborn rabbits. A valuable lesson: do not trust - at all - anyone in this age of domination of medicine by U.S. Pharma industry.